Why wasn’t Thailand Colonized?

As the powers of Europe began to grow and expand throughout the world’s history, colonialism became the forefront of this expansion. Over time, almost every non-European nation became a colony of one European nation or another at some point. Only a few countries managed to escape becoming overpowered by the Europeans, which makes us wonder, how did they do it? For a nation like Thailand, which was surrounded by British, French, and Dutch territories, there seemed to be no hope of avoiding colonialism. And yet, somehow, not the British, nor the French, or even the Dutch, ever colonized Thailand – and neither did any other European power. So if Thailand was never subject to colonialism, how did it manage to pull that off?…

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